The elevation of Candelaria ranges from50 to 1850 meters above sea level. Barangays Masalukot IV and V are located at the highest elevations, ranging from 400 to 1850 meters above sea level. Some barangays are located in the middle slopes to the foot hills of Mount Banahaw, with elevations ranging from 50 to 300 meters, while the rest lie on the plain regions.
Candelaria falls within four slope categories: flat land (0-3%), undulating to rolling land (3-18%), moderately steep to steeply mountainous (18-50%) and very steep slopes (greater than 50%).
Candelaria’s terrain is generally considered flat.The flat lands cover 8,402 hectares or 53.55% of the computed total land area of the municipality.The undulating to rolling lands of the municipality covers 5,517 hectares (35.17%), steeply mountainous slopes cover about 1,469.95 hectares (9.37%) while portions of Barangays Masalukot IV, Masalukot V and Mayabobo have slopes of 50% and above which covers 299.47 hectares or 1.91% of the computed total area of the municipality.
Candelaria’s land surface is characterized by different land formations, comprising of mountains, hills and plains. Mount Mayabobo and Mount Malasiña (Barangay Masin Norte) are actually hills because their elevations are below 2,000 feet (610 meters).
The mountainous portions of Candelaria are found near and at the peak of Mount Banahaw. These are included within the protected landscape under Presidential Proclamation No. 411 dated June 25, 2003.
There are four different types of soils found in Candelaria, each with specific characteristics; Guadalupe, Ibaan, Lipa and Mountain.
Table 1. Soil Types and Crops.
|Type of Soil||Crops Found||Barangays with Soil Type|
|Guadalupe||Lowland and upland rice, corn, root crops, coconut, banana, beans, cacao, citrus, coffee and locally adapted fruit trees||All barangays except Barangays San Isidro, Kinatihan, and Mayabobo|
|Ibaan||Lowland and upland rice and coconut||Barangays Mayabobo and Kinatihan|
|Lipa||Coconut, star apple, mango, avocado and santol||Barangays Malabanban Norte, Malabanban Sur, San Andres, Sta. Catalina Norte, Sta. Catalina Sur, and San Isidro|
|Mountain||No agricultural value||Barangays Masalukot I, Masalukot II, Masin Norte, Masin Sur, Buenavista East, Pahinga Norte, Pahinga Sur, Kinatihan I, and Kinatihan II|
|Source: Ecological Profile of Candelaria, 2010.|
Candelaria is a fast growing municipality and there is a growing concentration of population in the municipality’s lowland areas. Land use conversions from agricultural to residential occur mostly in Barangays Masalukot I and Pahinga Sur. Industrial land uses are also apparent in most of the municipality’s lowland barangays.
Crops, such as coconut, rice, corn, cassava, banana and mango are grown generally in the municipal lowlands. Vegetables such as bitter gourd (ampalaya) and string beans (sitaw) are also grown.
Barangays Masalukot III, IV and V are primarily forested areas where many species of plants and animals are found. Generally, these areas have high biodiversity.
A portion of the Mount Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL) is located in the municipality. The conservation of Mount Banahaw was first established in 1921 when it was considered as a forest reserve. Two decades have passed when Presidential Proclamation 716 re-classified the reserve into Mt. Banahaw-San Cristobal National Park. In 1992, the forest reserve was included in the initial components of the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS), which is now established and managed as a protected area. It has beenofficially declared as a protected landscape under Presidential Proclamation No. 411 on June 25, 2003. Also, Republic Act 9847 (Mts. Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape Act of 2009) ensures the continued protection of the said landscape.
Candelaria is drained by three major rivers: Masin, Quiapo and Taguan, where several small creeks branch out. These rivers also serve as the natural boundaries of the barangays within the municipality and also the neighboring municipalities.
River systems within the municipality originate from Mount Banahaw and flow down to the MalaquingIlog River at the southern boundary of the municipality, which eventually flows out to the Tayabas Bay. Other rivers include Pansol, Guhit, Palos, Mamala, Mangilag Sur, Bacong, Tiaong, Madre Estaquia, Tilarog and Mangalang. In Barangay MasalukotIV,there is an intermittent river that dries up during the dry, hot summer months of March to May. Other rivers in the municipality are Langalanga, Pritil, Anito, Matakmil, EdesBulusan, Yamot, Mantika, Bukol, Bonabohar, Timtimon, Sipit, and Bega. Springs and falls are also present in Candelaria, such as Adarna, Pansol and Mabitin springs and the Guhit and Poles falls.
However, the primary rivers of the municipality have become polluted due to wastes that were thrown into those rivers. Boulders and rocks are seen on the river beds of the intermittent river systems, which could be transported downstream when rainwater flows through these systems during heavy downpours. Springs and streams serve as potential sources of potable water for Candelaria and could be developed for tourism.
Municipal Ordinance 81, dated April 30, 2012, declared Tilarog Spring, Quiapo Spring, Baloybaloy Spring, Dapian Spring, Quiapo River and Masin River as protected bodies of water.
CURRENT CLIMATE AND OBSERVED TRENDS
According to the Modified Coronas Climate Classification System, the municipality of Candelaria experiences a type III climate. Moreover, this type of climate does not have very pronounced seasons. It is relatively dry from November to April, and relatively wet for the rest of the year. Average temperature in the municipality ranges from 29 to 35 degrees Celsius with an average relative humidity of 92.38%.
Based on the trends observed from Ambulong station (synoptic station for climatic data and patterns located at Tanauan, Batangas) for 2001 to 2012, the area experiences the highest mean temperatures during the months of April and May, while the lowest are experienced during the months of December and January. Highest amount of rainfall was recorded during the month of July, while the lowest amount was recorded during the month of March.
Variations in climate will be expected in the municipality according to DOST-PAGASA. According to the climate projections for the year 2020 (from 2006 to 2035) Candelaria will have a seasonal temperature increase of 1.0 degree Celsius for the months of September to February. Meanwhile it will experience a temperatureincrease of 1.2 degrees Celsius and 0.9 degree Celsius for the months of March to May and June to August, respectively.
Changes in rainfall are also expected based on the studies by DOST-PAGASA. For the year 2020, there will be a decrease of 29.9% for the months of December to February. Meanwhile, there will be a decrease of 24.1% for the months of March to May. However, there will be an increase of 9.1% and 0.5% for the months of June to August and September to November respectively.
These changes in climatic trends can bring impacts on ecosystems and sectors of society.Therefore, adaptive measures should be considered for critical planning. Assessments should also take place for identifying areas that experience critical water shortage and for considering adaptation strategies.
The municipality of Candelaria is prone to natural hazards such as typhoons and monsoon rains, which may cause landslides and floods. The fluvial systems of the municipality may render areas susceptible to floods.
The town is also susceptible to landslides since it is located at the foot of Mount Banahaw. The northern parts of Candelaria, particularly barangays Masalukot IV, Masalukot V and Mayabobo, have moderate susceptibility to landslides, whereas the remaining areas of the municipality have low susceptibility.